Freedom of Expression and Media in Transition

Studies and reflections in the digital age

Ulla Carlsson
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The issues raised by today’s global and multicultural societies are complex, and it is urgent for the research community to help improve our understanding of the current problems. Digitization and globalization have changed our communication systems in terms of time, space and social behaviour;  they have resulted in a transformation of functions as well as management practices and the market by adding new types of transnational companies.  The context of freedom of expression has shifted.

In 2009, Nordicom published Freedom of Speech Abridged? Cultural, legal and philosophical challenges, and a few years later Freedom of Expression Revisited. Citizenship and journalism in the digital era. The current publication may be seen as a follow-up to these earlier titles. It is based  on research in the Nordic countries, but many of the studies are global in nature and the result of collaborations between researchers from many parts of the world. It is hoped that this collection will contribute to knowledge development in the field as well as to global and regional discussions  about freedom of expression, press freedom, and communication rights in contemporary societies.

The publication is available in electronic version (pdf-format), the printed version is out of stock.



Freedom of Expression and the Media in a Time of Uncertainty: A brief introduction
Ulla Carlsson

Rethinking the Nordic Media Model: A Challenge to Democracy

The Media Welfare State: Nordic media in times of change
Trine Syvertsen, Gunn Enli, Ole J. Mjøs, Hallvard Moe

Communication Rights and Public Service Media: Changing ecosystems, changing ‘publicness’
Minna Aslama Horowitz, Hannu Nieminen

In Transition: Freedom of Expression, Media and the Public Sphere

Free Speech at an Intersection: Notes on the contemporary hybrid public sphere
Risto Kunelius

On Press Freedom and Other Media Freedoms
Helge Rønning

Media Freedom Revisited: The widening gap between ideals and reality
Christian S. Nissen

Liberate Freedom from Its Ideological Baggage!
Kaarle Nordenstreng

Trust and Values for Sale: Market-driven and democracy-driven freedom of expression
Maria Edström, Eva-Maria Svensson

Three Dilemmas of Visual News Coverage
Astrid Gynnild

Media Freedoms in Changing Frames: Tanzania under a magnifying glass
Ullamaija Kivikuru

Digital Media Pluralism: The need for global strategies
Nicola Lucchi

Threats to Freedom of the Press: Control, Surveillance and Censorship

Canaries in the Coalmine: Why journalists should be concerned by privacy
Heikki Heikkilä

Threatened Source Protection: Freedom of expression and extremist adversaries
Elisabeth Eide

Drone Journalism: The newest global test of press freedom
Epp Lauk, Turo Uskali, Heikki Kuutti, Helena Hirvinen

Journalists Behind Bars
Mogens Blicher Bjerregård

The Internet is Weakening Authoritarian States’ Information Control: Syria as a case study
Walid Al-Saqaf

Ai Weiwei and the Art of Political Dissidence in the Digital Age
Anu Kantola

Reporting War and Conflict: Safety and Civil Rights

‘Mediatization’ of War and ‘Martialization’ of Journalism: The twins threatening democracy and human rights in the New Wars
Stig Arne Nohrstedt

Women in War: Challenges and possibilities for female journalists covering wars and conflicts
Kristin Skare Orgeret

The (Un)safe Practice of Journalism: An analysis based on UNESCO’s Journalists’ Safety Indicators assessments
Reeta Pöyhtäri

Reduced Security for Journalists and Less Reporting from the Frontline

Ethical Dilemmas, Guilt and Posttraumatic Stress in News Journalists
Klas Backholm, Trond Idås

The Authors

Book cover


Antal sidor: 199
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