Citing publicly available empirical research material
Any empirical research material that is publicly retrievable must have an entry in the reference list.
This includes, for example, articles quoted for a discourse analysis, or social media posts from public accounts.
These references must contain the full information that any other reference contains, and they should adhere to APA guidelines.
Citing research participants
Quotations from research participants that are not publicly retrievable do not need to be included in the reference list. State in the text who gave the quotation (using descriptors rather than names if anonymity is required), and use parentheses to include any additional relevant information, such as age, job, and so forth. Treat these in a similar way as regular citations – that is, if there is information (e.g., the name) provided in the sentence immediately preceding the citation, then it does not need to be included in the parenthetical citation).
- Read APA guidelines for citing personal communications
- Read APA guidelines for quoting research participants
You may choose to include a table presenting your sources, for example, interview respondents (see Table 1), then you may choose to simplify in-text citations, for example “(male, 40, Gothenburg)” or “(male, freelance)”, depending on the relevant information.
Table 1 Characteristics of interview participants
|Gender||Age||City of interview||Origin||Occupational status||Day of interview (2021)|
|male||20||Oslo||Argentina||tech company||10 Jan.|
|male||37||Malmö||USA||tech student||19 Jan.|
If you have questions or concerns, please contact the manuscript editor at firstname.lastname@example.org
Page last updated October 2021