The Assault on Journalism

Building knowledge to protect freedom of expression

People who exercise their right to freedom of expression through journalism should be able to practice their work without restrictions. They are, nonetheless, the constant targets of violence and threats. In an era of globalization and digitization, no single party can alone carry the responsibility for protection of journalism and freedom of expression. Instead, this responsibility must be assumed jointly by the state, the courts, media companies and journalist organizations, as well as by NGOs and civil society – on national as well as global levels.

To support joint efforts to protect journalism, there is a growing need for research- based knowledge. Acknowledging this need, the aim of this publication is to highlight and fuel journalist safety as a field of research, to encourage worldwide participation, as well as to inspire further dialogues and new research initiatives. The contributions represent diverse perspectives on both empirical and theoretical research and offer many quantitatively and qualitatively informed insights. The articles demonstrate that a new important interdisciplinary research field is in fact emerging, and that the fundamental issue remains identical: Violence and threats against journalists constitute an attack on freedom of expression.

The publication is the result of collaboration between the UNESCO Chair at the University of Gothenburg, UNESCO, IAMCR and a range of other partners.


Words of Introduction 
Journalist Killings and the Responsibility to Report  
Why the World Became Concerned with Journalistic Safety, and Why the Issue Will Continue to Attract Attention 
The United Nations’ Role in Promoting the Safety of Journalists from 1945 to 2016 
Gendering War and Peace Journalism. New challenges for media research  
Collaboration Is the Future. Doing research in the network era 
1. Reflection, Reconsideration, Collaboration 
A Country without Mercy. Afghan journalists caught in crossfires  
The Cost of Truth Telling in India. Reporting in the context of intolerance  
Philippine and Global Research on News Media Safety. Crossing disciplines, bridging gaps  
UNESCO’s Research Agenda on the Safety of Journalists. Call for new academic research initiatives 
Setting a New Research Agenda. The establishment of a journalism safety research network 
Journalism Schools Must Include Safety Courses in Curricula 
2. How to Measure Safety of Journalists 
Assaults against Journalists. We see the tip of the iceberg  
Measuring Journalism Safety. Methodological challenges 
Introduction. Explorations in an Emerging Research Field  
1. Threats and Violence against Journalists, and Its Effects 
Tribal Journalists under Fire. Threats, impunity and decision making in reporting on conflict in Pakistan 
How Journalists Survived to Report. Professionalism and risk management in the reporting of terror groups and violent extremism in North East Nigeria  
Safety Concerns in the Nigerian Media. What gender dynamics?  
The Psychological Wellbeing of Iranian Journalists  
Violence against Indigenous Journalists in Colombia and Latin America 
The Dangers of Sports Journalism  
Unwarranted Interference, Fear and Self-censorship among Journalists in Council of Europe Member States 
Internal Threats and Safety of Journalists. A study from India  
Australian News Photographers, Safety and Trauma  
Risk and Resilience among Journalists Covering Potentially Traumatic Events 
2. Protection of Journalists and Sources 
What’s Wrong with War Journalism? Why and how legal aspects of conflicts need better reporting 
Embedded Journalism and Its Implications in the Field. 
The Protection of Citizen Journalists during Armed Conflicts. A legal approach 
How Safe Is It? Being an activist citizen journalist in Turkey  
A Story Bigger than Your Life? The safety challenges of journalists reporting on democratization conflicts  
How Unsafe Contexts and Overlapping Risks Influence Journalism Practice. Evidence from a survey of Mexican journalists 
Foreign Correspondents and Local Journalists. A key newsgathering partnership, for safety and for the global public good 
Freedom under Pressure. Threats to journalists’ safety in Pakistan 
Digital Safety among Nigerian Journalists. Knowledge, attitudes and practice  
The Authors  
REPUBLICATION OF: Time to Break the Cycle of Violence against Journalists. Highlights from the UNESCO Director-General’s 2016 Report on the Safety of Journalists and the Danger of Impunity. UNESCO, Paris, 2016 
1. UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity 
2. UNESCO: Towards a Research Agenda on the Safety of Journalists 
Printed, PDF
Research Antologies
280,00 kr
30,00 EUR